Cite:Ruishan Chen, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Yong Zhou, Hai Ming, Anting Wang, and Qiwen Zhan,“Detecting the topological charge of optical vortex beams using a sectorial screen”,Applied Optics Vol. 56, Issue 16, pp. 4868-4872 (2017)
We demonstrate a new method to detect the vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum by a sectorial screen. When the sectorial screen is illuminated by optical vortex beams, the far-field diffraction pattern can be used to visually determine the modulus and sign of topological charges. We also prove that center alignment is not strictly required. The experimental results agree well with the simulated results.
Cite:Wei, X.; Kesse, S.; Babu, B.C. Differential Frequency Exploration of Vortex Light in Lithium Niobate Crystals. Crystals 2023, 13, 154.
In recent years, Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) beams have been applied in optical communications to improve channel capacity and spectral efficiency. However, in practical applications, OAM information is often imprinted on short-wavelength light beams. How to completely transfer this information to the O-band to achieve long-distance transmission has not been conveniently achieved through most traditional methods. We studied the differential frequency experiment of OAM-carrying beams from both theoretical and experimental facets. In the periodic polarization 0 class matched lithium niobate crystal, the difference in frequency between the incident 1950 nm strong pump light and the 780 nm weak input light is achieved, resulting in output light in the O band. The polarization period of the crystal is 20 μm, and the best phase matching is achieved when the temperature is maintained at 41.2 °C. At this time, 780 nm vortex light produces 1300 nm vortex light, and the nonlinear conversion efficiency reaches 0.1387% (topological charge number l = 5). During the experiment, momentum, energy, and topological charge are all conserved.
Cite:Qu, G., Yang, W., Song, Q. et al. Reprogrammable meta-hologram for optical encryption. Nat Commun 11, 5484 (2020).
Meta-holographic encryption is a potentially important technique for information security. Despite rapid progresses in multi-tasked meta-holograms, the number of information channels available in metasurfaces is limited, making meta-holographic encryption vulnerable to some attacking algorithms. Herein, we demonstrate a re-programmable metasurface that can produce arbitrary holographic images for optical encryption. The encrypted information is divided into two matrices. These two matrices are imposed to the incident light and the metasurface, respectively. While the all-dielectric metasurface is static, the phase matrix of incident light provides additional degrees of freedom to precisely control the eventual functions at will. With a single Si metasurface, arbitrary holographic images and videos have been transported and decrypted. We hope that this work paves a more promising way to optical information encryption and authentication
Cite:Lanting Li, Yuanlin Zheng, Haigang Liu, and Xianfeng Chen, "Reconstitution of optical orbital angular momentum through strongly scattering media via feedback-based wavefront shaping method," Chin. Opt. Lett. 19, 100101- (2021)
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a fundamental physical characteristic to describe laser fields with a spiral phase structure. Vortex beams carrying OAMs have attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, the wavefront of OAM light would be destroyed when it passes through scattering media. Here, based on the feedback-based wavefront shaping method, we reconstitute OAM wavefronts behind strongly scattering media. The intensity of light with desired OAM states is enhanced to 150 times. This study provides a method to manipulate OAMs of scattered light and is of great significance for OAM optical communication and imaging to overcome complex environment interference.
Cite:Wen K, Gao Z, Fang X, Liu M, Zheng J, Ma Y, Zalevsky Z, Gao P. Structured illumination microscopy with partially coherent illumination for phase and fluorescent imaging. Opt Express. 2021 Oct 11;29(21):33679-33693. doi: 10.1364/OE.435783. PMID: 34809175.
This study presents a partially coherent illumination based (PCI-based) SIM apparatus for dual-modality (phase and fluorescent) microscopic imaging. The partially coherent illumination (PCI) is generated by placing a rotating diffuser on a monochromatic laser beam, which suppresses speckle noise in the dual-modality images and endows the apparatus with sound sectioning capability. With this system, label-free quantitative phase and super-resolved/sectioned fluorescent images can be obtained for the same sample. We have demonstrated the superiority of the system in phase imaging of transparent cells with high endogenous contrast and in a quantitative manner. In the meantime, we have also demonstrated fluorescent imaging of fluorescent beads, rat tail crosscut, wheat anther, and hibiscus pollen with super-resolution and optical sectioning. We envisage that the proposed method can be applied to many fields, including but not limited to biomedical, industrial, chemistry fields.
Cite:Wu, H., Zhang, X., Shan, Y., He, Z., Li, H., & Luo, C. (2017). Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique. AIP Advances, 7, 045121.
We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI) method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS) are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending) order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS) are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI) setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.
Cite:R. S. Chen, X. Q. Zhang, J. H. Wang, Q. Zhao, A. T. Wang, and Q. W. Zhan , ” Scalable detection of photonic topological charge using radial phase grating ” ,APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 112, 122602 (2018）
A method to detect the photonic topological charges (TCs) of optical vortex beams using a radial phase grating is proposed and demonstrated. The modulus of TCs can be obtained by the number of dark stripes of far-field diffraction patterns, and the sign of TCs is determined by the orientation of the patterns. The detection of TCs up to ±120 is demonstrated with this scheme. In addition, through investigating the evolution of patterns with various azimuthal periods of the grating and the distance between the centers of the grating and vortex beams, we show that this detection scheme has excellent alignment tolerance and does not have stringent requirements on the parameters of the grating.
Cite:CHEN WANG, YUAN REN, TONG LIU ,ZHENGLIANG LIU, SONG QIU, YOU DING, RUIJIAN LI, AND JIE ZHAO,”Directly measuring mode purity of single component in superposed optical vortices”,Optics Communications Volume 508, 1 April 2022, 127600
Mode purity is a vital quality reference of an optical vortex. This work proposes a self-interference method to directly measure the mode purity of a single component in known superposed optical vortices, based on the modified phase-shifting technology we proposed. This method has excellent flexibility, rapidity, and robustness, which can be applied to various occasions and harsh conditions. Careful alignment and optimized error analysis allow us to generate and measure optical vortices with mode purity as high as 99.997%.
Cite:Wang, Chen and Yuan Ren. “One-time measurement to characterize complex amplitude single component in symmetry superposed optical vortices.” (2021).
Complex amplitude measurement is an essential prerequisite for light field characterization. In this work, we propose a one-time measurement method to characterize the complex amplitude of symmetry superposed optical vortices (SSOVs) with only one picture registered by CCD. This method includes two strategies we proposed. One is the ring extraction strategy for amplitude measurement, and another is the rotational measurement strategy for phase measurement. In the proof-of-concept experiment, the complex amplitude is characterized, and the mode purity is well measured. This method has excellent flexibility, rapidity, and robustness, which can be applied to various occasions and harsh conditions. Careful alignment and optimized error analysis allow us to generate and measure a single component with mode purity as high as 99.99%.
Cite:MINYU FAN, KUN LIU, JIE ZHU, YU CAO, AND SHA WANG,”Flexible single multimode fiber imaging using white LED ”,2307.09714 [physics.optics].
Multimode fiber (MMF) has been proven to have good potential in imaging and optical communication because of its advantages of small diameter and large mode numbers. However, due to the mode coupling and modal dispersion, it is very sensitive to environmental changes. Minor changes in the fiber shape can lead to difficulties in information reconstruction. Here, white LED and cascaded Unet are used to achieve MMF imaging to eliminate the effect of fiber perturbations. The output speckle patterns in three different color channels of the CCD camera produced by transferring images through the MMF are concatenated and inputted into the cascaded Unet using channel stitching technology to improve the reconstruction effects. The average Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of the reconstructed images from the FashionMINIST dataset is 0.83. In order to check the flexibility of such a system, perturbation tests on the image reconstruction capability by changing the fiber shapes are conducted. The experimental results show that the MMF imaging system has good robustness properties, i. e. the average PCC remains 0.83 even after completely changing the shape of the MMF.
Cite:Huang, X., Chang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, X., & Zhang, P. (2022). Generation of the Anomalous Vortex Beam by Spiral Axicon Implemented on Spatial Light Modulator. In Frontiers in Physics.
The anomalous vortex beam (AVB), whose paraxial local topological charge varies with propagation, has potential applications in quantum information, laser beam shaping, and other fields. However, there are currently no efficient optical devices to generate AVBs. In this paper, we propose an efficient pure-phase device called spiral axicons. We theoretically analyze the spiral axicon, and then experimentally verify its performance by implementing a spiral axicon on spatial light modulator. Our work provides an alternative method for generating AVB, which will facilitate its application in different fields.
Cite: Zhao, Z. (2022). High Precision Optical Wavefront Generation Using Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM). IntechOpen. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.100379.
LC-SLM provides a flexible way to modulate the phase of light with the help of a grayscale pattern loaded on it. Nevertheless, the modulated phase profile is of relatively low accuracy due to the nonlinear and nonuniform response of the liquid crystal layer in the SLM. To improve the performance of LC-SLM on the wavefront generation, the nonlinear and nonuniform phase response needs to be calibrated and compensated effectively. In this chapter, we present some state-of-art methods to measure the phase modulation curve of the LC-SLM. Some methods to measure the static aberration caused by the backplane of the LC-SLM are then presented. Last but not the least, the future development of the LC-SLM in phase modulation is also presented.
Cite: J. Li et al., "Characterizing static aberration in reflective liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC-SLM) using random phase shifting interferometry," 2021 International Conference of Optical Imaging and Measurement (ICOIM), Xi'an, China, 2021, pp. 96-99, doi: 10.1109/ICOIM52180.2021.9524397.
To accurate modulate the phase of the incoming light, the backplane aberration of a spatial light modulator (SLM) needs to be measured and compensated. In this paper, we develop an interferometric method to calibrate the static aberration. In our method, a Michelson interferometer was constructed and the SLM itself was used to produce the random phase shift that we need. In addition, the phase demodulation method based on matrix VU factorization (VU) and phase unwrapping algorithm based on derivative Zernike polynomial fitting (DZPT) are adopted to get the phase profile of the static aberration. Experimental result shows that our proposed method can get a pretty good compensation result.
Cite: Feng G, Yang M, Wu Y, Wang P. Laser mode speckle ghost imaging of underwater environments. Research Square; 2023. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-2838223/v1.
Absorption, scattering, noise, and low-sensitivity detector lead to poor quality in conventional underwater imaging. In response, Ghost imaging (GI) has emerged as an effective anti-interference underwater imaging method based on the relationship between illumination speckle patterns and a non-spatial-resolution detector. Conventional speckle patterns are distributed based on mathematical models such as the random, Hadamard, or Walsh models. In this study, we apply novel speckle patterns based on a physical model of M2 ordered laser modes to GI. The laser mode speckle pattern GI (LMS-GI) system achieves perfect imaging quality at a sampling rate of 5% or less; good imaging quality persists even below 0.64%. Despite relative random noise of 1.0%~ 5.0%, it outperforms the other GIs. Furthermore, at a low sampling rate of 2.48%, LMS-GI is effective not only in inclement weather, but also in complex liquid environments such as turbid liquids and biological tissue fluids.
Cite:Zhenyu Guo, Zehong Chang, Jinglin Meng ,Min An, Junliang Jia, Zidan Zhao, Xiaoli Wang, and Pei Zhang, "Generation of perfect optical vortex by Laguerre–Gauss beams with a high-order radial index," Appl. Opt. 61, 5269-5273 (2022).
Perfect optical vortex (POV) beams have attracted extensive attention because they have the advantage of a radial profile that is independent of orbital angular momentum. To date, it is usually obtained by means of the Fourier transform performed by a lens on Bessel beams. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that POV can be generated by performing the Fourier transform on Laguerre–Gauss beams with a high-order radial index. Furthermore, we derive an analytical expression for the increase in vortex radius, which is beneficial to compensate for the influence of the radius change in actual experiments. Our results may shed new light for a variety of research utilizing POV.
Cite: Zhi Yan, Peiyao Li, Jichao Gao, Yuan Wang, Lei Wang, Martynas Beresna, and Jingyu Zhang, "Anisotropic nanostructure generated by a spatial-temporal manipulated picosecond pulse for multidimensional optical data storage," Opt. Lett. 46, 5485-5488 (2021).
Anisotropic nanostructures can be generated in fused silica glass by manipulating the spatiotemporal properties of a picosecond pulse. This phenomenon is attributed to laser-induced interband self-trapped excitons. The anisotropic structures exhibit birefringent properties, and thus can be employed for multi-dimensional optical data storage applications. Data voxels generated by such short laser irradiation enable on-the-fly high-speed data recording.
Cite: Haibin Sun, Tingting Liu, "Simultaneous Measurement of In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Displacements Using Talbot Fringe Projection", International Journal of Optics, vol. 2020, Article ID 5453475, 6 pages, 2020.
The paper introduces a method for simultaneously measuring the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement derivatives of a deformed object in digital holographic interferometry. In the proposed method, lasers of different wavelengths are used to simultaneously illuminate the object along various directions such that a unique wavelength is used for a given direction. The holograms formed by multiple reference-object beam pairs of different wavelengths are recorded by a 3-color CCD camera with red, green, and blue channels. Each channel stores the hologram related to the corresponding wavelength and hence for the specific direction. The complex reconstructed interference field is obtained for each wavelength by numerical reconstruction and digital processing of the recorded holograms before and after deformation.
Cite: Chen, Mao-Wei et al. “Weak-light solitons and their active control in Rydberg-dressed parity-time symmetry moiré optical lattices.” Results in Physics (2023): n. pag.
We propose a physical setup to realize parity-time (PT) symmetric moiré optical lattices (ML) and nonlocal optical solitons in a cold Rydberg atomic system with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We also show that based on the PT symmetry lattice strength and giant nonlocal Kerr nonlinearity originated from the strong, long-range atom–atom interaction, the system supports two-dimension (2D) nonlocal solitons with very low light intensity. By using numerical simulation method, we uncover the formation, properties, and dynamics of higher-order solitons and vortical ones. Our study opens a route for developing non-Hermitian nonlinear optics, especially for realizing and controlling high-dimensional weak-light optical solitons through adjustable PT-symmetric moiré lattice parameters and giant nonlocal optical nonlinearity.
Cite:D. Shen, T. He, X. Yu and D. Zhao, "Mode Conversion and Transfer of Orbital Angular Momentum Between Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian Beams," in IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-6, Feb. 2022, Art no. 6510506, doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2022.3140359.
The cross phase (CP) opens up a new horizon for the generation and measurement of vortex beams, and the conversion between Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes can be done with a CP. However, the conversion plane is in the far plane, and the width cannot be adjusted. In this article, we present a more convenient and practical mode converter between HG and LG modes based on CP combined with a lens. The feasibility of the converter for the conversion between two modes is theoretically analyzed. The conversion can be accomplished in the determined plane and the width of converted beam can be controlled by adjusting the parameter of converter. Proof-of-concept experiment is carried out to verify theoretical analysis and the experimental results are quite agree with theoretical simulations. The transfer of orbital angular momentum (OAM) between two modes after passing through the converter is also analyzed.
A partitionable adaptive multilayer diffractive optical neural network is constructed to address setup issues in multilayer diffractive optical neural network systems and the difficulty of flexibly changing the number of layers and input data size. When the diffractive devices are partitioned properly, a multilayer diffractive optical neural network can be constructed quickly and flexibly without readjusting the optical path, and the number of optical devices, which increases linearly with the number of network layers, can be avoided while preventing the energy loss during propagation where the beam energy decays exponentially with the number of layers. This architecture can be extended to construct distinct optical neural networks for different diffraction devices in various spectral bands. The accuracy values of 89.1% and 81.0% are experimentally evaluated for MNIST database and MNIST fashion database and show that the classification performance of the proposed optical neural network reaches state-of-the-art levels.
Cite:Zhenyu Guo, Zehong Chang, Ying Zhang, Guangdong Ma, Xindong Zhu, Junliang Jia, and Pei Zhang, "Radial-mode sensitive probe beam in the rotational Doppler effect," Opt. Express 31, 7632-7642 (2023).
The rotational Doppler effect (RDE) attracts much attention in various research areas, from acoustics to optics. The observation of RDE mostly depends on the orbital angular momentum of the probe beam, while the impression of radial mode is ambiguous. To clarify the role of radial modes in RDE detection, we reveal the mechanism of interaction between probe beams and rotating objects based on complete Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. It is theoretically and experimentally proved that radial LG modes play a crucial role in RDE observation because of topological spectroscopic orthogonality between probe beams and objects. We enhance the probe beam by employing multiple radial LG modes, which makes the RDE detection sensitive to objects containing complicated radial structures. In addition, a specific method to estimate the efficiency of various probe beams is proposed. This work has the potential to modify RDE detection method and take the related applications to a new platform.
Cite:Wen K, Fang X, Ma Y, Liu M, An S, Zheng J, Kozacki T, Gao P. Large-field structured illumination microscopy based on 2D grating and a spatial light modulator. Opt Lett. 2022 Jun 1;47(11):2666-2669. doi: 10.1364/OL.460292. PMID: 35648900.
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has been widely used in biological research due to its merits of fast imaging speed, minimal invasiveness, super-resolution, and optical sectioning imaging capability. However, the conventional SIM that uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) for fringe projection often has a limited imaging field of view. Herein, we report a large-field SIM technique that combines a 2D grating for fringe pattern projection and an SLM for selecting fringe orientation and performing phase shifting digitally. The proposed SIM technique breaks the bottleneck of fringe number limited by the digital projection devices, while maintaining the advantage of high-speed (digital) phase shifting of conventional SIM. The method avoids the pixilation and dispersion effects of the SLMs. Finally, a 1.8-fold resolution enhancement in a large field of 690 × 517 µm2 under a 20×/NA0.75 objective is experimentally demonstrated. The proposed technique can be widely applied to biology, chemistry, and industry.
Cite:Xu, C.; Pang, H.; Cao, A.; Deng, Q.; Hu, S.; Yang, H. Lensless Imaging via Blind Ptychography Modulation and Wavefront Separation. Photonics 2023, 10, 191.
A novel lensless imaging approach based on ptychography and wavefront separation is proposed in this paper, which was characterized by rapid convergence and high-quality imaging. In this method, an amplitude modulator was inserted between the light source and the sample for light wave modulation. By laterally translating this unknown modulator to different positions, we acquired a sequence of modulated intensity images for quantitative object recovery. In addition, to effectively separate the object and modulator wavefront, a couple of diffraction patterns without modulation were recorded. Optical experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of our approach by testing a resolution plate, a phase object, and an agaricus cell.
Cite:Sheng_ke Zhu, Ze_huan Zheng, Weijia Meng, Shan_shan Chang, Yingling Tan, Lu_Jian Chen, Xinyuan Fang, Min Gu, Jin_hui Chen. Harnessing disordered photonics via multi-task learning towards intelligent four-dimensional light field sensors[J]. PhotoniX, 2023, 4(1): 26 .
The complete description of a continuous-wave light field includes its four fundamental properties: wavelength, polarization, phase and amplitude. However, the simultaneous measurement of a multi-dimensional light field of such four degrees of freedom is challenging in conventional optical systems requiring a cascade of dispersive and polarization elements. In this work, we demonstrate a disordered-photonics-assisted intelligent four-dimensional light field sensor. This is achieved by discovering that the speckle patterns, generated from light scattering in a disordered medium, are intrinsically sensitive to a high-dimension light field given their high structural degrees of freedom. Further, the multi-task-learning deep neural network is leveraged to process the single-shot light-field-encoded speckle images free from any prior knowledge of the complex disordered structures and realizes the high-accuracy recognition of full-Stokes vector, multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength and power.
Cite:Wen, Kai et al. “Transmission Structured Illumination Microscopy for Quantitative Phase and Scattering Imaging.” Frontiers of Physics (2021).
In this paper, we demonstrate a digital micromirror device (DMD) based optical microscopic apparatus for quantitative differential phase contrast (qDIC) imaging, coherent structured illumination microscopy (SIM), and dual-modality (scattering/fluorescent) imaging. For both the qDIC imaging and the coherent SIM, two sets of fringe patterns with orthogonal orientations and five phase-shifts for each orientation, are generated by a DMD and projected on a sample. A CCD camera records the generated images in a defocusing manner for qDIC and an in-focus manner for coherent SIM. Both quantitative phase images and super-resolved scattering/fluorescence images can be reconstructed from the recorded intensity images. Moreover, fluorescent imaging modality is integrated, providing specific biochemical structures of the sample once using fluorescent labeling.
Cite:Wu, L., Zhang, Z. Domain multiplexed computer-generated holography by embedded wavevector filtering algorithm. PhotoniX 2, 1 (2021).
Computer-generated holography can obtain the wavefront required for constructing arbitrary intensity distributions in space. Currently, speckle noises in holography remain an issue for most computational methods. In addition, there lacks a multiplexing technology by which images from a single hologram and light source can be switched by a lens. In this work, we first come up with a new algorithm to generate holograms to project smoother images by wavevector filtering. Thereupon, we propose a unique multiplexing scheme enabled by a Fourier lens, as the incident light can be decomposed either by a superposition of spherical waves or plane waves. Different images are obtained experimentally in the spatial and wavevector domains, switchable by a lens. The embedded wavevector filtering algorithm provides a new prospective for speckle suppression without the need for postprocessing. The multiplexing technology can double the capacity of current holographic systems and exhibits potential for various interesting display applications.